Saturday, August 07, 2004

The Battle of Winwaed

The Battle of Winwaed An attempt to collate information about the Battle of Winwaed (655AD), and ascertain its location within Britain. Winwaed marked the defeat of the last credible pagan force within England.

From the site:

The Battle of Winwaed was fought in 655AD between the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Northumbria and Mercia. Not only did this ensure Northumbria as the ruling kingdom in Northern England, it marked the defeat of the last credible pagan force in Anglo-Saxon England. It also sowed the seeds which would lead to Anglo-Saxon acceptance of the Catholic Church over the Celtic Church.

Mirroring major changes in the English language, the battle has been given a variety of names during the past one and a half millennia. British/Welsh accounts refer to "Maes Gai", whilst medieval accounts refer to "Winwaed", "Winwade", "Wunued", and "Wingfield". If the Battle occurred at its most likely location (Whinmoor, Leeds), the spelling had become "Whinmore" by the 19th Century. This is similar to today's "Winn Moor" or "Whinmoor" spellings.

Although the exact location has been lost, the most likely location is very close to an area near Leeds, which I grew up in. These pages represent what I have been able to find to date. If you have any information or comments about these pages, please contact me!

Friday, August 06, 2004


Cunnan This is a user edited encyclopedia of the middle ages operated by the Society for Creative Anachronism. It is very well done.

From the site:

Welcome to Cunnan, a Wiki collecting information for re-enactors of the Middle Ages and Renaissance with a heavy slant towards members of the SCA.

Cunnan is the largest SCA wiki in the world - anyone can edit our articles. You should be bold in updating pages! Articles can only be improved if people are contributing new information and improving old information. So add research information, how-to pages, event information and anything else you can think of. Cunnan should be applicable worldwide, so be mindful of regional differences - use comments such as "In Lochac...". If you see anything that is different in your area, add a note on your local variation.

Thursday, August 05, 2004

History of Argentina

History of Argentina. This is a nice brief overview of the history of Argentina.

From the site:

Europeans arrived in the region with the 1502 voyage of Amerigo Vespucci. Spanish navigator Juan Diaz de Solias visited what is now Argentina in 1516. Spain established a permanent colony on the site of Buenos Aires in 1580, although initial settlement was primarily overland from Peru. The Spanish further integrated Argentina into their empire by establishing the Vice Royalty of Rio de la Plata in 1776, and Buenos Aires became a flourishing port. Buenos Aires formally declared independence from Spain on July 9, 1816. Argentines revere Gen. Jose de San Martin, who campaigned in Argentina, Chile, and Peru as the hero of their national independence. Following the defeat of the Spanish, centralist and federationist groups waged a lengthy conflict between themselves to determine the future of the nation. National unity was established, and the constitution promulgated in 1853. Two forces combined to create the modern Argentine nation in the late 19th century: the introduction of modern agricultural techniques and integration of Argentina into the world economy. Foreign investment and immigration from Europe aided this economic revolution. Investment, primarily British, came in such fields as railroads and ports. As in the United States, the migrants who worked to develop Argentina's resources--especially the western pampas--came from throughout Europe.

Wednesday, August 04, 2004

Civic Education for Democracy in Latvia: The Program of the Democracy Advancement Center

Civic Education for Democracy in Latvia: The Program of the Democracy Advancement Center. This nice essay on democracy in Latvia also has information on the history of Latvia.

From the site:

In May 1990, the Republic of Latvia declared the restoration of its independence and sovereignty. During and after World War II, the Soviet military occupied Latvia and forced the country into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). With the decline and demise of the Soviet Union, Latvians seized the chance to be free and restored their Constitution of 1922 as the frame of government for their democratic republic.


Knowing the close connection between well-educated citizens and democratic well being, many Latvians decided to reform the curricula and teaching methods of their schools. They quickly acted to replace Soviet-era courses on citizenship with new teaching materials and methods suitable for citizenship in a genuine constitutional democracy. And they looked to the West for help, which came initially from the World Federation of Free Latvians, an international organization that nurtured the spirit of national independence and liberty during the long and harsh Soviet occupation of their homeland.

The American Latvian Association, a component of the World Federation of Free Latvians and the largest organization of Latvians in the West, started a civic education project led by Rusins Albertins of the United States, which founded the Democracy Advancement Center (DAC) in Riga, Latvia. Financial support for the DAC was provided by the National Endowment for Democracy, an agency of the federal government of the United States of America. The DAC began its work in May 1993 under the leadership of Rusins Albertins and Anita Usacka, Professor of Law at the University of Latvia, who was the DAC's first Deputy Director. She was succeeded as Director by Guntars Catlaks, a researcher at the Latvian Institute of History and a teacher at N. Draudzina Gymnasia in Riga. Guntars Catlaks currently is President of the DAC, which in April 1995 became an officially registered independent NGO (non-governmental organization). His main assistant at the DAC is Valts Sarma, principal and teacher at Sala Primary School near Riga.

Tuesday, August 03, 2004

Grover Cleveland

Grover Cleveland This is a biography of Grover Cleveland. He is the only person to be President twice during non-connected terms.

From the site:

Stephen Grover Cleveland ( March 18 , 1837 - June 24 , 1908) was the 22nd ( 1885 - 1889 ) and 24th ( 1893 - 1897 ) President of the United States , and the only president to serve two non-consecutive terms.

One of nine children of a Presbyterian minister, Cleveland was born in Caldwell, New Jersey in 1837 . He was raised in upstate New York . As a lawyer in Buffalo , he became notable for his single-minded concentration upon whatever task faced him.

At 44, he emerged into a political prominence that carried him to the White House in three years. Running as a reformer, he was elected Mayor of Buffalo in 1881 , and later, Governor of New York .

Cleveland won the Presidency with the combined support of Democrats and reform Republicans , the "Mugwumps," who disliked the record of his opponent James Blaine of Maine .

Monday, August 02, 2004

World History Project: World History From Mesopotamia to World War II

World History Project: World History From Mesopotamia to World War II Provides an overview of Western history from ancient Sumeria to World War Two, including profiles of major figures, timelines, photos, and interactive features.

From the site:

Topics Are Listed Below in Alphabetical Order by Geographical Region And/Or Time Period.

Biographies of individuals may be found on the page that best represents the era in which they lived. For example, Abraham Lincoln will be found on the American Civil War Page and Hannibal on the Ancient Rome Page.

You may also want to try finding a topic using the Alphabetical listings page, the Site Map or Site Search pages.

Sunday, August 01, 2004

History of Australia

History of Australia. This is a good overview of the history of Australia.

From the site:

Australia's aboriginal inhabitants, a hunting-gathering people generally referred to as Aboriginals and Torres Straits Islanders, arrived about 40,000 years ago. Although their technical culture remained static--depending on wood, bone, and stone tools and weapons--their spiritual and social life was highly complex. Most spoke several languages, and confederacies sometimes linked widely scattered tribal groups. Aboriginal population density ranged from 1 person per square mile along the coasts to 1 person per 35 square miles in the arid interior. When Capt. James Cook claimed Australia for Great Britain in 1770, the native population may have numbered 300,000 in as many as 500 tribes speaking many different languages. The aboriginal population currently numbers more than 410,000, representing about 2.2% of the population. Since the end of World War II, the government and the public have made efforts to be more responsive to aboriginal rights and needs.

Australia was uninhabited until stone-culture peoples arrived, perhaps by boat across the waters separating the island from the Indonesia archipelago about 40,000 years ago. Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, and English explorers observed the island before 1770, when Captain Cook explored the east coast and claimed it for Great Britain (three American colonists were crew members aboard Cook's ship, the Endeavour).

On January 26, 1788 (now celebrated as Australia Day), the First Fleet under Capt. Arthur Phillip landed at Sydney, and formal proclamation of the establishment of the Colony of New South Wales followed on February 7. Many but by no means all of the first settlers were convicts, condemned for offenses that today would often be thought trivial. The mid-19th century saw the beginning of government policies to emancipate convicts and assist the immigration of free persons. The discovery of gold in 1851 led to increased population, wealth, and trade.