Saturday, August 14, 2004

Vatican - Cunnan

Vatican - Cunnan. This is a brief article on the history of the Vatican at the user edited Middle Ages enecyclopedia Cunnan. It needs improvement! Please consider creating an account and adding to this article. There is a lot of Vatican history for this time period.

From the site:

The Vatican today is the residence of the pope, in Rome.

During the Middle Ages and Renaissance the feudal holdings of the pope were much larger, and included all of Rome and much of central Italy stretching west to the Adriatic coast. This area, known as the Papal States included the Duchy of Urbino as well as Viterbo and other lands.

The Holy See's diplomatic history began in the fourth century, but the boundaries of the papacy's temporal power have shifted over the centuries. From the 8th century through the middle of the 19th century, the Popes held sway over the Papal States, which included a broad band of territory across central Italy. In 1860, after prolonged civil and regional unrest, Victor Emmanuel's army seized the Papal States, leaving only Rome and surrounding coastal regions under papal control.

Friday, August 13, 2004

Official Home Page of the Texas Navy

Official Home Page of the Texas Navy Historical information and pictures of the three Texas Navies - the first two fighting in Texas' war with Mexico, the third being a modern association.

From the site:

In 1836 when Texas proclaimed its Independence from Mexico, the small nation was immediately faced with invasion, on land and sea by overwhelming forces from Mexico---a power having many times the population and naval and military resources of the infant Republic of Texas. The Army of Texas finally triumphed over its larger and much better equipped foe at San Jacinto but historians now agree that one of the most important elements in that great victory was the brief but furious maritime activity of the first Texas Navy.

The first Texas Navy, consisting of four hastily purchased and minimally equipped small sailing vessels head quartered at Galveston, prevented the Mexican government from landing a second army on the Texas coast -- an army which would have trapped General Sam Houston and his small command between immensely superior forces. During a series of lightening forays in the Gulf of Mexico, the audacious Texas ships INDEPENDENCE, BRUTUS, INVINCIBLE and LIBERTY kept the Mexican coast in an uproar and forced the much larger enemy navy to disperse its strength in order to protect its cities and shipping. The Texans thus prevented Mexican ships from supplying Santa Anna and in the process captured munitions which were then delivered to Houston's army and used to help win the victory at San Jacinto. Shortly after that triumph, the first Texas Navy was disbanded; its task completed.

Thursday, August 12, 2004

History of Armenia

History of Armenia This is a good essay which covers the history of Armenia.

From the site:

Armenia first emerged into history around 800 BC as part of the Kingdom of Urartu or Van, which flourished in the Caucasus and eastern Asia Minor until 600 BC. After the destruction of the Seleucid Empire, the first Armenian state was founded in 190 BC. At its zenith, from 95 to 65 BC, Armenia extended its rule over the entire Caucasus and the area that is now eastern Turkey, Syria, and Lebanon. For a time, Armenia was the strongest state in the Roman East. It became part of the Roman Empire in 64 BC and adopted a Western political, philosophical, and religious orientation.

In 301 AD, Armenia became the first nation to adopt Christianity as a state religion, establishing a church that still exists independently of both the Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox churches. During its later political eclipses, Armenia depended on the church to preserve and protect its unique identity. From around 1100 to 1350, the focus of Armenian nationalism moved south, as the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, which had close ties to European Crusader states, flourished in southeastern Asia Minor until conquered by Muslim states.

Between the 4th and 19th centuries, Armenia was conquered and ruled by, among others, Persians, Byzantines, Arabs, Mongols, and Turks. For a brief period from 1918 to 1920, it was an independent republic. In late 1920, the communists came to power following an invasion of Armenia by the Red Army, and in 1922, Armenia became part of the Trans-Caucasian Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1936, it became the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic. Armenia declared its independence from the Soviet Union on September 21, 1991.

Wednesday, August 11, 2004

Teaching about Australia

Teaching about Australia. This is a good essay on how teachers in the USA can teach students about Australia. This includes ideas for history.

From the site:

At the high school level, history and social science courses offer many opportunities for the study of Australia. For example, in U.S. history courses teachers may make comparisons with the Australian colonial experiences, the gold rushes, measures aimed at restricting immigration, defense alliances, and the framing of both Constitutions. Comparisons can enhance comprehension of common human needs and experiences, and can also help students to understand the conceptual bases of these experiences in their own local context. In world history courses worthwhile comparative examples can include the investigations of trans-Pacific culture flows in film, literature, and popular music, or discussions of issues of assimilation or integration in multicultural societies, or examination of comparative issues in federal-state relations. An inquiry focus on these issues can heighten students' awareness of the universal nature and significance of these concepts.

Teachers need not be restricted to the very limited space allocated to Australia in American social studies textbooks. There is, however, a real need for more detailed resources appropriate for all grade levels. Teachers and students should contact Australian embassies and consulates in the U.S. or write to exchange information with subject associations, teachers, and students in Australia. There are some excellent curriculum resources available in Australia.

Tuesday, August 10, 2004

Benjamin Harrison

Benjamin Harrison This is a useful biography of American President Benjamin Harrison.

From the site:

Benjamin Harrison ( August 20 , 1833 - March 13 , 1901 ) was the 23rd ( 1889 - 1893 ) President of the United States .

A grandson of President William Henry Harrison , Benjamin was born in North Bend , Hamilton County, Ohio . He attended Miami University , Oxford, Ohio , where he was a member of the fraternity Phi Delta Theta , and graduated in 1852 . He studied law in Cincinnati then moved to Indianapolis in 1854 . He was admitted to the bar and became reporter of the decisions of the supreme court of the State.

Harrison served in the Union Army during the Civil War , brevetting as a brigadier general , and mustering out in 1865 . While in the field in October 1864 he was re-elected reporter of the State supreme court and served four years. He was an unsuccessful Republican candidate for Governor of Indiana in 1876 . He was appointed a member of the Mississippi River Commission in 1879 , and elected as a Republican to the United States Senate , where he served from March 4 , 1881 , to March 3 , 1887 . He was chairman of the Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard (Forty-seventh Congress) and Committee on Territories (Forty-eighth and Forty-ninth Congresses).

Harrison was elected President of the United States in 1888 . In the Presidential election, Harrison received 100,000 fewer popular votes than Cleveland, but carried the Electoral College 233 to 168. Although Harrison had made no political bargains, his supporters had given innumerable pledges upon his behalf. When Boss Matt Quay of Pennsylvania heard that Harrison ascribed his narrow victory to Providence, Quay exclaimed that Harrison would never know "how close a number of men were compelled to approach... the penitentiary to make him President." He was inaugurated on March 4 , 1889 , and served until March 4 , 1893 .

Monday, August 09, 2004

Wikinfo | History

Wikinfo | History This is the main history page at Wikinfo. It includes links to many of the categories for history articles at this encyclopedia.

From the site:

History is often used as a generic term for information about the past, e.g., as in "geologic history of the Earth". When used as a field of study, history refers to human history, which is the recorded past of human societies.

The term "history" comes from the Greek historia, "an account of one's inquiries," and shares that etymology with the English word story. It does not come from the word his; however, (see Gender-specific pronoun) some feminists have coined the term herstory (seeNeologism) to refer to history from a female perspective, (see non-sexist language).

Historians use many types of sources, including written or printed records, interviews (oral history), and archaeology. Different approaches may be more common in some periods than others, and the study of history has its fads and fashions (see historiography, the history of history). The events that occurred prior to human records are known as prehistory.

There is a very large amount of historical information available in Wikinfo, and several different ways of classifying it are given below.

Sunday, August 08, 2004

History of Angola

History of Angola This is a brief but well done history of Angola.

From the site:

In 1482, when the Portuguese first landed in what is now northern Angola, they encountered the Kingdom of the Congo, which stretched from modern Gabon in the north to the Kwanza River in the south. Mbanza Congo, the capital, had a population of 50,000 people. South of this kingdom were various important states, of which the Kingdom of Ndongo, ruled by the ngola (king), was most significant. Modern Angola derives its name from the king of Ndongo. The Portuguese gradually took control of the coastal strip throughout the 16th century by a series of treaties and wars. The Dutch occupied Luanda from 1641-48, providing a boost for anti-Portuguese states. In 1648, Brazilian-based Portuguese forces re-took Luanda and initiated a process of military conquest of the Congo and Ndongo states that ended with Portuguese victory in 1671. Full Portuguese administrative control of the interior did not occur until the beginning of the 20th century.

Portugal's primary interest in Angola quickly turned to slavery. The slaving system began early in the 16th century with the purchase from African chiefs of people to work on sugar plantations in São Tomé, Principé, and Brazil. Many scholars agree that by the 19th century, Angola was the largest source of slaves not only for Brazil, but also for the Americas, including the United States. By the end of the 19th century, a massive forced labor system had replaced formal slavery and would continue until outlawed in 1961. It was this forced labor that provided the basis for development of a plantation economy and, by the mid-20th century, a major mining sector. Forced labor combined with British financing to construct three railroads from the coast to the interior, the most important of which was the transcontinental Benguela railroad that linked the port of Lobito with the copper zones of the Belgian Congo and what is now Zambia.