Saturday, November 27, 2004

Discover Jamaica-Travel and History.

Discover Jamaica-Travel and History. - A presentation of the History of Jamaica divided into time periods. A place to start learning about all aspects of Jamaica.

From the site:

The recorded history of Jamaica may be roughly divided into six periods:

The first period may be said to date from Columbus’ arrival in the island in 1494 to the destruction of Port Royal in 1692. This covers nearly 200 years. But very little is known about the days when the Spaniards were masters of Jamaica. On the other hand, a good deal is known about the first fifty years of Jamaica as a British colony.

The second period of our history extends from.the destruction of Port Royal to the abolition of the slave trade in 1807. During this time Jamaica flourished as an agricultural colony and became very rich. It reached the height of its prosperity just before the slave trade was abolished; that is, just before the British Government decided that no more slaves were to be brought from Africa and sold as private property

The third period of Jamaican history covers the years between the abolition of the slave trade and the Morant Bay rebellion in 1865. During the 46 years between the abolition of the slave trade and the rebellion, the country passed through many misfortunes and there was a great deal of misery and ill-feeling among the different classes of people in the island.

The fourth period dates from 1865 to the end of July, 1914.

The fifth period began with the outbreak of the First World War on August 1, 1914 and ended on August 1962.

The sixth period began on August 6, 1962, and records the history of Jamaica as an independent country.

Friday, November 26, 2004

History of Brunei Darussalam

History of Brunei Darussalam. This is a good historical overview of the sultanate of Brunei. It is no longer a powerful nation but it has a long history.

From the site:

Historians believe there was a forerunner to the present Brunei Sultanate, which the Chinese called Po-ni. Chinese and Arabic records indicate that this ancient trading kingdom existed at the mouth of the Brunei River as early as the seventh or eighth century A.D. This early kingdom was apparently conquered by the Sumatran Hindu Empire of Srivijaya in the early ninth century, which later controlled northern Borneo and the Philippines. It was subjugated briefly by the Java-based Majapahit Empire but soon regained its independence and once again rose to prominence.

The Brunei Empire had its golden age from the 15th to the 17th centuries, when its control extended over the entire island of Borneo and north into the Philippines. Brunei was particularly powerful under the fifth sultan, Bolkiah (1473-1521), who was famed for his sea exploits and even briefly captured Manila; and under the ninth sultan, Hassan (1605-19), who fully developed an elaborate Royal Court structure, elements of which remain today.

After Sultan Hassan, Brunei entered a period of decline due to internal battles over royal succession as well as the rising influences of European colonial powers in the region that, among other things, disrupted traditional trading patterns, destroying the economic base of Brunei and many other Southeast Asian sultanates. In 1839, the English adventurer James Brooke arrived in Borneo and helped the Sultan put down a rebellion. As a reward, he became governor and later "Rajah" of Sarawak in northwest Borneo and gradually expanded the territory under his control.

Thursday, November 25, 2004

Norfolk Island's Fascinating History

Norfolk Island's Fascinating History - A detailed account of Norfolk Island's fascinating and very colourful history. It is interesting and I think I would like to visit this spot in Oceania.

From the site:

The day after the First Fleet arrived in Botany Bay, Lieutenant Philip Gidley King began selecting the handful of men and women whose fate it would be to colonise Norfolk Island. Britain was then engaged in the American War of Independence and her supplies of timber for ship-building and flax for sails were almost exhausted.

When Captain Cook discovered Norfolk Island, he enthusiastically reported that flax and giant pines grew abundantly there. His Majesty's Government had a further reason for colonising Norfolk - if the British didn't, the French would. Lord Sydney's instructions to King were " to send a small establishment thither to secure the same to us and prevent it being occupied by subjects of any other European Power". Six women convicts were chosen as those 'whose characters stood fairest' and they were joined by nine male convicts and eight free men, their ages ranging from 16 to 72.

The oldest, Richard Widdicombe, had been a farmer. He was convicted for `stealing one wooden winch and other goods, value four guineas', and was sentenced to seven years transportation. The youngest, Charles McLennan, was convicted when he was only 14 years of age and given seven years for `stealing a bladder purse, value one penny, one gold half-guinea, one half-crown, and six pennies'. Of the motley 759 persons who arrived with the First Fleet, these 23 were selected as `the best of a bad lot'.

Wednesday, November 24, 2004

The Aztecs

The Aztecs - A Spanish and English presentation about the Aztec Empire and its fall, and the everyday life and culture of its people. Also provides a selection of games and quizzes, images, and maps.

From the site:

Around 700 years ago ........ the Aztec peoples for some reason or other left their homes in Atzlan ... somewhere in North West Mexico.(1)

They came to the Valley of Mexico named Anahuac, (2) led by their chieftain Tenoch. They were a poor, ragged people who ate rats, snakes, and stole food.

They were just too wild and nasty. So they were driven from one place to another.

Then Tenoch had a vision ... Huitzilopochtli told him to lead his people to a swampy island in the middle of Lake Texcoco. He was told to look for an eagle perched on a cactus, growing from a rock or cave surrounded by water. They were to build their city there and thank Huitzilopochtli for his brilliant idea with human sacrifices. The city they built was called Tenochtitlán, the city of Tenoch in around 1325.

It was very hard to build Tenochtitlan because the Aztecs only had a small piece of land in the surrounding marshes.

The Aztecs made the swampy, shallow lake into chinampas. They made islands by piling up mud from the lake bottom. They used them as their city foundations. To start with they built a few thatched, mud huts, and some small temples.

Tuesday, November 23, 2004

Andrew Jackson

Andrew Jackson. This is a biography of American President Andrew Jackson. This is a good write up about "Old Hickory."

From the site:

Andrew Jackson ( March 15 , 1767 - June 8 , 1845 ) was the seventh ( 1829 - 1837 ) President of the United States , sometimes called "Old Hickory".

Andrew Jackson's parents Andrew Jackson, Sr (c. 1730 - February , 1767 ) and Elizabeth "Betty" Hutchinson (c. 1740 - November , 1781 ) emigrated to the US from Carrickfergus in Northern Ireland in 1765 . The Andrew Jackson Centre at Carrickfergus has information about the family.

Wounded in a duel as a young man, Jackson was a frequent dueler.

Jackson was regarded as a national hero after defeating the British in the 1815 Battle of New Orleans .

In the Presidential Election of 1824 Jackson won both more popular and electoral votes than any other candidate, but did not receive an overall majority so the election went to the House of Representatives, where John Quincy Adams was chosen as President. Jackson beat Adams with a substantial majority four years later, and took office as President in 1829 .

Monday, November 22, 2004

History of Cameroon

History of Cameroon. This is an overview to the history of the African nation of Cameroon.

From the site:

The earliest inhabitants of Cameroon were probably the Bakas (Pygmies). They still inhabit the forests of the south and east provinces. Bantu speakers originating in the Cameroonian highlands were among the first groups to move out before other invaders. During the late 1770s and early 1800s, the Fulani, a pastoral Islamic people of the western Sahel, conquered most of what is now northern Cameroon, subjugating or displacing its largely non-Muslim inhabitants.

Although the Portuguese arrived on Cameroon's coast in the 1500s, malaria prevented significant European settlement and conquest of the interior until the late 1870s, when large supplies of the malaria suppressant, quinine, became available. The early European presence in Cameroon was primarily devoted to coastal trade and the acquisition of slaves. The northern part of Cameroon was an important part of the Muslim slave trade network. The slave trade was largely suppressed by the mid-l9th century. Christian missions established a presence in the late 19th century and continue to play a role in Cameroonian life.

Beginning in 1884, all of present-day Cameroon and parts of several of its neighbors became the German colony of Kamerun, with a capital first at Buea and later at Yaounde. After World War I, this colony was partitioned between Britain and France under a June 28, 1919 League of Nations mandate. France gained the larger geographical share, transferred outlying regions to neighboring French colonies, and ruled the rest from Yaounde. Britain's territory -- a strip bordering Nigeria from the sea to Lake Chad, with an equal population -- was ruled from Lagos.

Sunday, November 21, 2004

The Ottoman Khilafa

The Ottoman Khilafa - An account of the Ottoman Caliphate, from its founding in 1281, through the glories of empire, decline in the 19th century, and collapse after World War I.

From the site:

The founder of the Ottoman Empire, Osman Gazi (or, as he is known, Osman Khan or Osman Bey) was descended from a line of great leaders who had, in turn, led the Kayi Tribe, the most famous of all the 24 Turkish tribes.

Osman Khan's father, Ertoghrul Gazi, had been appointed Uchbey on the Byzantine Frontier by the Seljukian Sultan, Alauddin. The land was given to him to control and lay along the boundaries of Brusa, Kutahya and Biledjik. Ertoghrul Gazi captured the town of Saegut from the Byzantine Empire and made it the capital city of the region. The duties of the Uchbey were to defend the frontiers of the Empire and to fight against the attacks of the Crusader Knights.

On the death of Ertoghrul Gazi in 1281, his son Osman Gazi, despite being the youngest member of his family, was elected Uchbey to succeed his father.

Osman Gazi, through a clever mixture of diplomacy and warfare, gained large tracts of land from the neighboring Byzantine Emperors. Faced by an alliance of the Byzantine Emperors of Brusa and Nice on the one hand, and Yarhisar and Karadjahisar on the other, Osman Gazi declared war. He attacked Nice and in 1291 captured Karadjahisar. He changed the Castle Church into a mosque and assigned a judge to rule the area.